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Grammar Notes

Just some miscellaneous tidbits from the grammar notes I have lying around....



んです
ndesu



Meaning: Verb short form + ndesu = the mode of explaining things


Examples:

Ashita nihon ni iku ndesu. - I will go to Japan (that's why I bought a new suitcase, etc).

Densha ga okureta ndesu. - The train was delayed (that's why I was late).






でしょう
deshou



Meaning: making a guess or prediction.

verb short form + deshou = probably


Examples:

Ashita wa hareru deshou. - Tomorrow should be sunny.

Hokkaido wa samui deshou. - It is probably cold in Hokkaido.






く / に なる
ku/ni naru



Meaning: adjective + ku/ni naru = become adj

i-adj: takai - taka ku naru

na-adj: kirei na - kirei ni naru


Examples:

Saikin samu ku narimashita. - It gets colder recently.

Watashi no nihongo wa jouzu ni narimashita. - My Japanese has become better.






ましょう
mashou



Meaning: stem +ましょう = Let's


Examples:

Nomimashou. - Let's drink.

Ikimashou. - Let's go.






ましょう か
mashou ka



Meaning: stem + ましょうか = shall I/we


Examples:

Tennis shimashou ka? - Shall we play tennis?

Kaimono ni ikimashou ka? - Shall we go shopping?






なくちゃいけない
nakucha ikenai



Meaning: necessary to do something, must, have to do

Verb negative stem + nakucha ikenai


Examples:

Takusan benkyo shinakucha ikemasen. - I have to study a lot.

6 ji ni okinakucha ikemasen. - I must wake up at 6 am.






ないでください
naide kudasai



Meaning: to request that someone refrain from doing something

Negative stem + naide kudasai = Please do not ...


Examples:

Hanasanaide kudasai. - Please do not speak.

Nenaide kudasai. - Please do not sleep.






ませんか
masen ka



Meaning: stem + ませんか is used to invite someone to do it.

Won't you -
How about -
Wouldn't you -


Examples:

Issho ni tabemasen ka? - Won't you eat with me?

Date shimasen ka? - Won't you go on a date?






から
kara



Meaning: Because (reason)


Examples:

Ashita shiken desu kara benkyo shimasu. - I will study because there will be a test tomorrow.






てから
te kara



Meaning: Verb te-form + te kara = after doing


Examples:

Nihon ni kite kara shirimashita. - I understood it after coming to Japan.

Tabete kara toilet ni ikimasu. - I go to the toilet after eating.






まえに
mae ni



Meaning: Very dictionary form + mae ni = before doing


Examples:

Dekakeru mae ni denwa shimasu. - I'll call you before going out.

Taberu mae ni te o araimasu. - I wash my hands before eating.






ほうがいい
houga ii



Meaning: it is better to do

verb ta-form + houga ii = You had better...


Examples:

Motto benkyo shita houga ii desu yo. - You had better study more.

Lesson o yasumanai houga ii desu yo. - You had better not skip class.






まだ〜ていません
mada ---te imasen



Meaning: mada ---te form + imasen = have not...yet


Examples:

Watashi wa mada hirugohan o tabete imasen. - I have not eaten lunch yet.

Shikamaru wa mada okite imasen. - Shikamaru has not woken up yet.






のがすきです
noga suki desu



Meaning: I like to (verb).

Verb dictionary from + noga suki desu


Examples:

Watashi wa utau noga suki desu. - I like to sing.

Kanojo wa tennis o suru no ga suki desu. - She likes to play tennis.






のがへたです
noga heta desu



Meaning: Dictionary form + noga heta desu = be poor at (dic), be not good at (dic)


Examples:

Kankuro wa eigo o hanasu noga heta desu. - Kankuro is poor at speaking English.

Sakura-san wa ryouri i suru noga heta desu. - Sakura is not good at cooking.






のがじょうずです
noga jouzu desu



Meaning: Dictionary form +noga jozu desu = be good at (dic)


Examples:

Kanojo wa utau noga jouzu desu. - She is good at singing.

Takeshi wa sumo o suru noga jouzu desu. - Takeshi is good at playing sumo.






ている
te iru



Meaning: an action in progress, verbs that describe continuous activity that lasts for some time, changes that are more or less instantaneous, everyday exercise


Examples:

Sasuke wa benkyo shite imasu. - Sasuke is studying (right now).

Watashi wa nihongo o oshiete imasu. - I teach Japanese (everyday excise). or I am teaching Japanese (now).

Kanajo wa kekko shite imasu. - She is married.






たいです
tai desu



Meaning: Verb stem + tai desu = I want to (verb)


Examples:

Watashi wa nihongo o benkyo shitai desu. - I want to study Japanese.

Konban sushi o tabetai desu. - I want to eat sushi tonight.






すぎる
sugiru



Meaning: stem + sugiru = doing too much or to excess


Examples:

Tabe sugimashita. - I ate too much.

Nomi sugimashita. - I drank too much.






たり・・・たりする
tari...tari suru



Meaning: verb ta-form + ri , verb ta-form + ri suru = do such things as A and B


Examples :

Watashi wa hon o yonda ri , TV o mitari suru noga suki desu. - I like to do
such things as reading books and watching TV.


Senshu watashi wa Osaka ni ittari Nara ni ittari shimashita. - I went to Osaka
and Nara among other places over the weekend.







たことがある
ta koto ga aru



Meaning: Verb ta-form + koto ga aru = has the experience of...


Examples:

Africa ni itta koto ga arimasu. - I have been to Africa.

Tsuzuki ni atta koto ga arimasu. - I have met Tsuzuki before.






つもりです
tsumori desu



Meaning: Verb present short + tsumori = I intend to (verb)


Examples:

Watashi wa ashita tennis o siru tsumori desu. - I intend to play tennis tomorrow.

Hisoka wa rainen nihon ni inai tsumori desu. - Hisoka does not intend to stay in
Japan next year.







てもいいです
te mo ii desu



Meaning: Te-form + mo ii desu = You can do... or You may do... (describes an activity that is permitted)


Examples:

(to your kids) TV o mite mo ii desu. - You can watch TV (permission).

Te mo ii desu ka. - May I or Can I do something (asking permission).






てはいけません
te wa ikemasen



Meaning: Te-form + wa ikemasen = to deny someone permission to do something

You can't do...


Examples:

Class de nete wa ikemasen. - In the class, you can't sleep.


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